The infections or illnesses of the bone are called bone diseases. It disrupts the normal state of the bone and its functions. The bone makes up the skeleton part of the body. It contains tissues called osseous tissue connected like a matrix which makes the bone rigid.
Bones in the body have different shapes and sizes with lightweight.
From birth, the bones were cartilage before gradually getting replaced with bone as the body develops and grows. The body starts with 300 bones and finally fuses into 206 bones with various functions.
The functions of bones are the production of red and white blood cells, storage of minerals, strength, and support movements. The bone contains 30% matrix and 70% minerals. The matrix is about 85 to 95% of elastic collagen fiber.
It contains four different types of cells- living and non-living cells.
Osteoblast– is responsible for bone remodeling.
Osteoclast– causes bone breakdown by removal of unwanted tissues for bone remodeling.
Osteocyte– is the living cell that makes the bone a residing tissue.
Hematopoietic cells– these are the blood-forming cells.
NOTE: the longest bone in humans is the femur or the thigh bone, while the smallest is the stape in the ear.
Bone health is usually affected by different factors. The followings are the causing factors of bone diseases:
- Diet-low intake of calcium can lead to bone disease. It diminishes bone density causing bone weakness and increases the chance of fractures.
- Smoking and drinking: drinking and smoking reduce bone density and mineral contents.
- Sex: females are more prone to bone illness than males.
- Age: is one of the common contributing factors to bone diseases. As we age, the bone loses its mass and gets weaker.
- Family history: most bone diseases are usually from parents to offspring and are also a common cause.
- Hormonal imbalance: during menopause in women, there’s always a high thyroid hormone production that causes bone loss. Likewise, high estrogen and low testosterone increase the chance of bone weakness.
- Medications: drugs can interfere with calcium absorption to cause bone loss.
- Physical activities: a sedentary lifestyle weakens the bone, while an active body gets a stronger bone.
Bone diseases have different signs and symptoms, which can be mild or severe. NOTE: some bone diseases do not have any signs or symptoms and usually vary. They include:
- Bone pain
- Joint pain
- Back pain
- Weakness or tiredness
- Redness of the skin
- Lump on the skin
The appearance of any of these signs and symptoms requires you to visit a doctor immediately. Not all bone diseases show signs at their early stages.
Different types of diseases affect the bone.
It is a common bone disease that reduces the density of bone. The bone loses its minerals leading to abnormal formation in the bone structure and reduced bone quality, often accompanied by the breaking of the bone. It is an age-related bone illness. It affects everyone and is usually found in white females and Asian women.
The mineral level drops from its optimal level to a deranged quantity due to reduced or no production of osteoid- newly formed bone matrix before calcification (hardening). It is similar to osteoporosis but has a lower mineral density than osteopenia, usually found in women.
Paget’s disease interferes with the activities of the osteoblast responsible for bone remodeling; bone experiences breaking down with the rapid formation of new bones. At this pace, Paget disease causes irregularities in the bone structure. The bone gets larger or softer, which makes it prone to fractures. Especially the skull.
It is also known as brittle bone disease. Osteogenesis imperfecta is a hereditary illness with gene mutation; bone gets obstructed from the production of connective tissue. Parents can pass it to their children with abnormal skeletal architecture, bone fragility, and breaking bone.
Osteoarthritis is another type of arthritis disease. It affects the joint by attacking the cartilage covering the joints. It is a degenerative illness that disrupts the bone structure with the unusual shapes of hands, hips, and knees. The joint cartilage becomes thin, frayed, and soft. It is a common bone disease among older adults.
It is also known as avascular necrosis or aseptic necrosis. It is associated with the death of the bone tissues or cells with little or no blood flow. The unavailability of blood causes irreversible breakdown and joint damage, accompanied by swelling of the affected areas.
Osteomalacia is known as bone softening with incomplete mineralization of the bone. It occurs in the absence of calcification of the newly formed osteoid tissues. Minerals in the bone are insufficient to coat the bone, which results in soft collagen prone to diseases and fractures. It occurs in women more often than men, especially during pregnancy.
Osteomyelitis is an inflammation of the bone marrow. It is caused by a bacteria or fungi infection in the bloodstream, attacking the fat tissues around the bone. It cuts across every age group but is often found in younger children.
It is the unusual bone tissue development that replaces healthy bone tissues. It reduces the quality and strength of bone and occurs from mutation of gene cells, which leads to fracture and unusual shape.
Fibrous dysplasia usually affects the thigh, shin, skull, humerus, and pelvic bone. The bones experience destruction from infections or antibody reactions. At the same time, it leads to the growth and reproduction of the fibrous tissue. It causes bone expansion with massive bone shape.
It is a childhood bone disease. It is similar to osteomalacia, but ricket is the imperfect mineralization of the bone tissue. Osteoid tissues develop into soft and weak bones.
Also, it develops with vitamin D deficiency because vitamin D is responsible for calcium absorption. Problems with calcium absorption in diet influence bone growth, which develops into rickets. Lack of exposure to sunlight also causes rickets disease. It mainly occurs in children with muscular weakness, deficient calcification, and overproduction of osteoid tissues.
BONE CANCER AND TUMORS
Bone cancer and tumor are rare bone diseases. It is the uncontrolled growth of bone cells. Bone cells experience oxidation leading to the development of cancer or tumor cells. It can also be caused by spreading from any area in the body.
Treating the series of bone diseases is determined by its types. Treatments administered help to increase bone mass and mineral contents. The treatments include:
- Eating a good diet to provide nutrients for bone health
- Lifestyle change- physical activities, quitting smoking, and reduced alcohol intake
- Medications to enhance calcium absorption
- Following preventive measures against fracture or bone breakage.
Here are healthy tips to support your bone health:
- Diet- eat more vegetables. It supplies the bone with the needed vitamins. Foods like nuts, milk, and fish provide the bone with the required calcium daily value.
- Engage in physical activities to build strong bones. Bone gets stronger as you exercise.
- Avoid smoking and excessive drinking. It kills off the minerals in the bone. It can cause an antibody reaction.
- Keep a good weight. Osteoporosis and osteopenia are associated with being underweight. Excess body weight leads to obesity which reduces bone quality.
The bone constitutes the skeletal system which carries out a lot of functions. A healthy body also contributes to total wellness. It is best to consume healthy foods for strong and hard bones. Lessening your chance of developing bone diseases requires your interest. Choose to stay healthy.
What are the common bone diseases?
The bone is affected by various types of diseases with different severity. Bone cancer, Osteoporosis, osteopenia, osteoarthritis, osteomalacia, osteomyelitis, osteonecrosis, bone tumor, rickets, Paget disease, osteogenesis imperfecta, and fibrous dysplasia are bone diseases. These illnesses can be mild and severe.
What are the treatments for bone diseases?
Bone depends on the type of bone disease you’re treating. In mild to severe, the treatment administered helps to increase bone quality. The treatments are medications, patterns for a lifestyle change, and healthy nutrition.
What is osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis is a common type of bone disorder that reduces the density and minerals in bones. It affects the structure and strength with exposure to infections and fractures, usually found in older females. It is associated with frequent weakness, sprain, back pain, and joint pain. Immediate treatment is required.
What are the common symptoms of bone diseases?
The symptoms of bone diseases vary in individuals and are determined by the types of bone disorders. Moreover, not all bone diseases have symptoms. Symptoms include fracture, sprain, infections, joint pain, back pain, weakness, redness and swelling, impaired movement, and lumps. Signs and symptoms are indications to see your health practitioner.
What are bone foods?
There are a series of foods that supply bone with its needed nutrients. Bone nutrition should contain phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, and vitamin D. Milk, cheese, fish, green leafy vegetables, soya beans, tofu, orange juice, egg, soya milk, nuts, white bread, and yogurt are bone foods.